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Analytic Calculation of the Ordinary (O) and Extraordinary (X) Mode Nose Frequencies on Oblique Ionograms

J. Bennett
J. Chen
P. Dyson
Journal / Anthology

Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics
Year: 1994
Volume: 56
Issue: 5
Page range: 631-636

On oblique ionograms, the maximum frequencies of the ordinary and extraordinary modes are referred to as nose frequencies. The difference in the nose frequencies depends on parameters such as the length of the propagation circuit and the direction of the propagation. In this paper, the difference in nose frequencies is studied using the frequency scaling technique of Bennett et al. [(1991) Appl. Comput. Electromagn. Soc. Jl 6, 192]. For long paths, an explicit formula is obtained which gives the difference approximately as a function of the local magnetic dip and azimuth of propagation at the ray mid point. For shorter paths, it is shown how analytic ray tracing can be used to determine the difference.

*Science > Geology and Geophysics