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Theta Microscopy Allows Phase Regulation in 4Pi(A)-Confocal Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscopy

S. Lindek
N. J. Salmon
C. Cremer
Ernst H. K. Stelzer
Journal / Anthology

Year: 1994
Volume: 98
Issue: 1
Page range: 15-20

A solution for the phase problem in 4Pi(A)-confocal fluorescence microscopy has been found by observation orthogonal to the optical axis. Three-dimensional intensity distributions for 4Pi(A)-confocal microscopy and confocal theta microscopies are calculated. The evaluations in the focal region show that the volume integrals of the 4Pi(A)-point spread functions are strongly attenuated when the interference is not constructive in the geometrical focus. This results in a phase dependent fluorescence intensity signal with a modulation of up to 48% with which the relative phase of the interfering wavefronts can be measured and regulated.

*Science > Physics > Optics