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Optimum Cost Design of Partially Composite Steel Beams Using LRFD

M. Asghar Bhatti
Organization: The University of Iowa
Department: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Journal / Anthology

Engineering Journal
Year: 1996
Issue: First quarter
Page range: 18-29

Design of composite steel beams is a trial and error process. The procedure recommended by the Manual of Steel Construction, Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) is to first assume a depth for the steel beam and then compute a trial beam size from an equation on page 5-11. For a full composite action the number of shear studs is chosen with the assumption that the plastic neutral axis (PNA) is in the concrete slab. For partially composite design the number of shear studs is chosen rather arbitrarily by the designer. The flexural capacity is less than the required, the design is revised in one of several ways: by increasing the number of shear studs, by increasing the beam depth, or by choosing a heavier section. These decisions must be based on the designer's judgment without any available guidelines. Shear and deflection considerations may force additional changes in the design. The resulting design is usually not the minimum cost design and at best is a feasible design. Several iterations of this entire process may be necessary if the goal is to minimize the cost. The optimum design can directly be obtained by formulating the problem as a nonlinear optimization problem. However conventional methods for solution of these nonlinear programming problems are iterative and require large computer resources. Otoh presented a formulation for minimum weight design of continuous composite girders based on the AASHTO specifications. The economies of using LRFD in composite floor beams were discussed by Sahn. A cost based optimization model for design of composite beams was presented by Lorenz. However they did not present a methodology for obtaining optimum designs. Their main goal was to develop a better understanding of the partially composite design using the LRFD specifications.

*Engineering > Mechanical and Structural Engineering