Rear Suspension
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This sample notebook analyzes the motion of an inboard damper rear suspension
system using the Mechanical Systems kinematics package.
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Animation (Size 53Kb)
Kinematic Model
Preparation
The Mech2D package is loaded
into Mathematica with the Needs command, while the
KillMech
removes
all of the Mech function and their contexts, as if the Mech
had never been loaded.
In[1]:=KillMech[]
In[2]:=Needs["Mech`Mech2D`"]
Bodies in a Mech model
are referenced by a positive integer body number. The following names are
used to reference each of the bodies in the suspension model throughout
the analysis.
In[3]:=ground=1;chassis=2;carrier=3;rocker=4;
Body Definitions
Body objects are defined for each of the bodies in the
model. The body objects contain the coordinates of points in each body's
local coordinate system. Other Mech
functions can reference these local point coordinates by their positive
integer point numbers. The body objects also contain initial guesses for
the global coordinates of each body.
The Ground
Two points are defined on the ground, body 1.
P1 and P2 define the vertical translation line of the
chassis relative to the ground.
In[4]:=bd[ground]=Body[ground,PointList>{
(*P1*) {0,0},
(*P2*) {0,10}}];
The Chassis
Six points are defined on the chassis, body 2.
P1 and P2 define the vertical translation line of the
chassis.
P3 is the pivot point of the lower Aarm.
P4 is the pivot point of the upper Aarm.
P5 is the pivot point of the rocker arm.
P6 is the upper mounting point of the damper.
In[5]:=bd[chassis]=Body[chassis,PointList>{
(*P1*) {0,0},
(*P2*) {0,10},
(*P3*) {7.5,5},
(*P4*) {8,11},
(*P5*) {6,4.125},
(*P6*) {9.5,13}},
InitialGuess>{{0,2.5},0}];
The Wheel Carrier
Six points are defined on the wheel carrier, body 3.
P1 is the attachement point of the lower Aarm (at the
local origin).
P2 is the attachement point of the upper Aarm and the
connecting rod.
P3 is the bottom of the tire, where it contacts the road.
P4 is the top of the tire.
P5 is the center of the tire.
P6 is the center of the wheel carrier.
Points 4, 5, and 6 are not actually used for the mathematical model,
only for the graphics.
In[6]:=bd[carrier]=Body[carrier,PointList>{
(*P1*) {0,0},
(*P2*) {1,9},
(*P3*) {1.25,5.5},
(*P4*) {1.25,14.5},
(*P5*) {1.25,4.5},
(*P6*) {0.8,4.5}},
InitialGuess>{{22.,5.5},0.0}];
The Rocker
Four points are defined on the rocker arm, body 4.
P1 is the rotational axis of the rocker arm (at the local
origin).
P2 is the attachment point of the damper.
P3 is the attachment point of the connecting rod.
P4 is a fourth point to be used in the graphic image.
In[7]:=bd[rocker]=Body[rocker,PointList>{
(*P1*) {0,0},
(*P2*) {4.1,2.6},
(*P3*) {2.7,0},
(*P4*) {1,1}},
InitialGuess>{{6.0,6.6},.7}];
SetBodies
The data contained in the body objects are incorporated into the current
model with SetBodies.
In[8]:=SetBodies[bd[ground],bd[chassis],
bd[carrier],bd[rocker]]
Constraint Definitions
Seven constraint objects are required to model the inboard damper rear
suspension. The constraint objects contain algebraic constraint equations
that enforce the specified relationships between the coordinates of each
body in the model.
Constraints for the Chassis
Constraint 1 is a driving constraint that controls the vertical position
of the chassis. Constraint 2 is a translational constraint that allows
the chassis to move vertically relative to the ground. These two constraints
completely constrain the chassis.
In[9]:=cs[1]=RelativeY1[1,Point[chassis,1],T];
In[10]:=cs[2]=Translate2[2,
Line[ground,2,1],Line[chassis,2,1]];
Constraints for the Carrier
Constraints 3 and 4 are two relativedistance constraints that model the
upper and lower Aarms. Constraint 5 is a vertical position constraint
that forces the bottom of the tire to remain in contact with the ground.
In[11]:=cs[3]=RelativeDistance1[3,Point[chassis,3],
Point[carrier,1],14.6];
In[12]:=cs[4]=RelativeDistance1[4,Point[chassis,4],
Point[carrier,2],13.0];
In[13]:=
cs[5]=RelativeY1[5,Point[carrier,3],0];
Constraints for the Rocker Arm
Constraint 6 is a revolute joint that places the axis of the rocker arm.
Constraint 7 is a relativedistance constraint that models the connecting
rod. The length of the connecting rod is assigned to the symbol rodlength,
which must be given a numerical definition before SolveMech
will be able to find a solution.
In[14]:=
cs[6]=Revolute2[6,Point[chassis,5],
Point[rocker,1]];
In[15]:= rodlength=
cs[7]=RelativeDistance1[7,Point[carrier,2],
Point[rocker,3],rodlength];
SetConstraints
The data contained in the constraint objects are incorporated into the
current model with SetConstraints.
In[16]:=
SetConstraints[cs[1],cs[2],cs[3],cs[4],cs[5],
cs[6],cs[7]]
Running the Model
The rodlength is defined and the
model checked for mathematical consistency.
In[17]:= rodlength=15.5;
In[18]:= CheckSystem[]
Out[18]= True
SolveMech is used to seek a solution to the model with
the chassis 1.5 units off of the ground.
In[19]:= SolveMech[1.5]
Out[19]= {T>1.5`,X2>3.4443706549728956`*^26,
Y2>1.5`,Th2>0.`,X3>22.063575988270866`,Y3>5.469342717553401`,
Th3>0.023330508909981583`,X4>6.`,Y4>5.625`,Th4>293.9807691543304`}
This generates a list of 12 solution sets, spaced evenly from T = 0.5
to T = 3.5.
In[20]:=postab=SolveMech[{0.5,3.5},12];
In[21]:= ?SolveMech
Out[21]=
SolveMech[t] attempts to find a location
solution to the current model at time t. SolveMech returns a list
of rules containing the global coordinates of each body. SolvMech[{t1,
t2,....tn}] returns a nested list of solution rules containing solution
points at all of the ti. SolveMech accepts the Solution option to
determine what order of solution to seek. Interpolation>True causes
SolveMech to interpolate the solution rules returned.
Graphics
Mechanism Image
In[22]:=graph=Graphics[{
{Thickness[.02],Line[{{0,0},{27,0}}]},
{RGBColor[1,0,0],Thickness[.006],
Edge[chassis,{2,4,3,1,2,3},{4,5,3},
{4,6,3}]},
{RGBColor[0,0,1],Facet[carrier,{1,2,6}],
Thickness[.03],
Edge[carrier,{5,6}]},
{PointSize[.01],Vertex[rocker,{2,3,1}],
Vertex[carrier,{1,2}],
Vertex[chassis,{6}],RGBColor[0,.8,.2],
Facet[rocker,{1,2,3}]},
{RGBColor[.6,0,1],
Bar[Line[rocker,2,chassis,6],.7]},
{Thickness[.007],
Line[{Location[carrier,2],Location[rocker,3]}],
Line[{Location[chassis,3],Location[carrier,1]}],
Line[{Location[chassis,4],
Location[carrier,2]}]},
{RGBColor[.3,.3,.2],
Bar[Line[carrier,3,4],0,4]}},
Frame>True,
PlotRange>{{1,28},{1,21}},
AspectRatio>Automatic];
In[23]:=Show[graph/.LastSolve[]];
Animation
The following input will generate the series of 12 graphics in the animation
cell at the beginning of this notebook.
In[24]:=(Show[graph/.#1]&)/@postab;
Calculations
Optimal Damper Length
Setup
To find the optimal damper length for the rear suspension,
SolveMech is used to generate a list of 12 solution sets,
spaced evenly from T = 0.5 to T = 3.5, with the chassis 1.5 units off of
the ground
In[25]:= postab=SolveMech[{0.5,3.5},12];
The damper length can be defined as a symbolic function of the coordinates
of each body.
In[26]:=damperlength=Distance[Point[rocker,2],
Point[chassis,6]]
Out[26]:=
Sqrt((Y2Y4+13.` Cos[Th2]2.6` Cos[Th4]+9.5`
Sin[Th2]4.1` Sin[Th4])^2(X2X4+9.5` Cos[Th2]4.1` Cos[Th4]13.` Sin[Th2]+2.6`
Sin[Th4])^2)
Using the solution rules that were developed previously, damper length
as a function of time can be plotted with ListPlot.
Graphics
In[27]:=ListPlot[{T,damperlength}/.postab,
PlotJoined>True,GridLines>Automatic,Frame>True];
Out[27]= Graphics
Velocity Analysis
To analyze the velocity of the bodies in the model, components of the mathematical
model must be differentiated with respect to time. This is done automatically
when SolveMech is called with the Solution>Velocity
option.
In[28]:= SolveMech[1.0,Solution>Velocity]
Out[28]=
The the damper length is obtained by differentiating the expression
returned by Distance with Dt.
In[29]:=Dt[damperlength,T]/.LastSolve[]
Out[29]=1.05137
A table of velocity solutions is created in the same way that the table
of location solutions postab was.
In[30]:=veltab=SolveMech[{0.5,3.5},12,
Solution>Velocity];
In[31]:=ListPlot[{T,Dt[damperlength,T]}/.veltab,
PlotJoined>True,GridLines>Automatic,Frame>True];
Out[31]= Graphics
This plot shows that the velocity of the damper, relative to the velocity
of the wheel, is increasing as the suspension of the car is compressed.
Thus, the suspension is a "rising rate" suspension.
Acceleration Analysis
To analyze the acceleration of the bodies in the model, components of the
mathematical model must be differentiated twice with respect to time. This
is done automatically when SolveMech is called with the
Solution>Acceleration option.
In[32]:=SolveMech[1.0,Solution>Acceleration]
Out[32]={T>1.,X2>1.3384733184171396`*^23,
Y2>1.,Th2>0.,X3>22.08973852666825,
Y3>5.452706912658127,
Th3>0.035127328418305785,
X4>6.,Y4>5.125,Th4>0.1471127628108614,
X2d>9.131538766887195`*^17,
Y2d>0.9999999999999999,
Th2d>0.,X3d>0.036227741330542976,
Y3d>0.034240911041826715,
Th3d>0.02373901933945989,
X4d>6.341277449846002`*^17,Y4d>1.,
Th4d>0.22554067944233058,
X2dd>1.4611537945708706`*^17,
Y2dd>1.6199888194662392`*^17,Th2dd>0.`,
X3dd>0.06416644481509073,
Y3dd>0.0039623831197289775,
Th3dd>0.0006167259472788075,
X4dd>2.3779790436922506`*^17,Y4dd>0.,
Th4dd>0.022861463203498487}
To avoid wasting computation time, SolveMech is able
to update existing position (or position and velocity) rules without resolving
for the lowerorder solutions. The following example shows how SolveMech
is passed an existing location solution (LastSolve[]) to
be updated to a velocity solution. The CheckRules>False
option prevents SolveMech from checking the validity of
the solution rules that it is passed.
In[33]:=SetGuess[];
In[34]:=SolveMech[1.0];
In[35:=Timing[SolveMech[LastSolve[],
Solution>Velocity,CheckRules>False];]
Out[35]={0.` Second,Null}
This timesaving method is used to update the table of velocity rules
veltab with the acceleration solution.
In[36]:=acctab=SolveMech[veltab,
Solution>Acceleration,CheckRules>False];
Here is a plot of the second time derivative of the damper length.
In[37]:=ListPlot[{T,Dt[damperlength,T,T]}/.acctab,
PlotJoined>True,GridLines>Automatic,Frame>True];
Out[37]= Graphics
